TitlePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsSiddens LK, Larkin A, Krueger SK, Bradfield CA, Waters KM, Tilton SC, Pereira CB, Löhr CV, Arlt VM, Phillips DH, Williams DE, Baird WM
JournalToxicol Appl Pharmacol
Date Published2012 Nov 01
KeywordsAnimals, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzopyrenes, Carcinogens, Environmental, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Mice, Mice, Inbred Strains, Molecular Structure, Principal Component Analysis, Protein Array Analysis, Skin Neoplasms, Transcriptome

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by ³²P post-labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH-dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs).

Alternate JournalToxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PubMed ID22935520
PubMed Central IDPMC3483092
Grant ListP01 CA090890 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
P42 ES016465 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States
P42ES016465 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States
P42ES016465-S1 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States